|Country:||a) Northern Europe,||b) Sweden|
|Type:||Policy, Concept, 1|
|Area:||City/Town, Rur/area/Village, 100,000 - 1 mill.|
|Actors:||Local government, Publ.-priv. partnership|
|Funding:||Local government, Publ.-priv. partnership|
|Information and public participation|
|Land use and -planning|
|Nature and open space|
|Objectives:||Improve access to information|
|Improve intersectoral cooperation|
|Increase green areas|
|Increase public awareness|
|Increase use of clean technology|
|Reduce resource consumption|
|Reduce water consumption|
|Instruments:||Integrated planning approach|
The City of Stockholm has a long tradition of preventative environmental activity. Environmental legislation combined with technical solution has already resulted in significant improvements. In order to enforce and implement further environmental actions, Stockholm´s major task is now to arouse people´s interest and commitment. To spread knowledge, increase awareness and provide good examples are important components of Stockholm´s Agenda 21 activities. The Local Agenda will serve as a broader tool for reaching long-range goals of sustainability. Therefore Stockholm´s Environmental Action Programme for the period 1996 to 2000, Environment 2000, is closely connected with the Local Agenda. The goals presented in the programme have to be supported by broad citizen involvement, as the programme points out:
Implementation of the Environmental Programme requires the active participation not only of the city but also of other affected parties, among them the Government, industry, households and private individuals. For this reason, the responsibility issue is central.
Stockholm´s citizen awareness approach is a good practice case for the following reasons:
Environment 2000 (Miljö 2000) is the fourth Stockholm environmental programme and was accepted by the City Council in September 1995. During its formulation phase many discussions were held in a number of work groups with representatives from most municipal administrations and companies in the city. The previous programmes had already led to a number of actions in major environmental fields like water protection, waste disposal and air pollution. However, some of the goals have not yet been achieved. Besides obstacles like financial limitations, pollution from neighbouring countries and the need to update technological systems it is also essential to change some behavioural patterns of households and individuals. By their consumption choices, the way in which they handle products in their homes, travelling habits etc. individuals can make a substantial contribution towards reduced environmental pollution and better utilisation of resources. The programme´s basic idea is that habitability, solidarity and responsibility for the environment will improve when people develop more contact with one another and feel that they can influence their surroundings. By dealing with individual consumption and its associated environmental impact this approach gives priority to the soft (democracy) tools in addition to the hard (technology) tools.
In preparation of the Environment 2000 programme Stockholmers have been encouraged to make suggestions and offer viewpoints. By various activities in schools and different areas of the city, some 10,000 suggestions have been sent in. As a result, the goals and actions included in the Environmental Programme have been designed to help Stockholm in achieving a number of goals by the year 2000, among them:
These efforts are closely linked to Stockholm´s Local Agenda 21. The decision to work out a Local Agenda 21 plan was made by the municipal government in January 1994. An Agenda 21 office has been established to centralise the organisation and drive the work forward. A management group was also brought together with administrators and managers to work out the goals. In addition, a reference group was established including representatives of union groups, study associations, youth and environmental organisations, the Industrial Federation, universities, tenants´ groups and landlords. The first phase of the Local Agenda is calculated to be ready by the end of 1996 or the beginning of 1997. The process of change is expected to extend over a period of many years.
The City of Stockholm doesnt see the Agenda 21 as a new programme but rather a process, in which listening to the peoples perception of environmental needs is given high importance. Similar to the concept phase of the Environment 2000 programme, a poll was taken to find out which issues in the future concern residents most. Over a two-day period in November 1995, questions were placed to passers-by at 20 of the city´s busiest locations. Some 70,000 residents, or 10 per cent of the population, received the chance to fill out a survey card describing the issues that concern them most. A second comprehensive information campaign was launched during the spring of 1996. Further material was handed out, discussions were held and a youth jury chose the 20 best tips out of the many proposals.
The following long-term goals and measures have already been adopted:
In order to co-ordinate and supervise the progress of these actions, Stockholm is going to build up an environmental management and steering system. The environmental work should be regarded as a strategic management issue and be integrated in the entire organisation. This so-called Stockholm model has certain similarities to EMAS, an environmental steering system within the EU. It is going to be firmly anchored and applied at every level in individual activities and operations. The central aims are to
By all these measures, Stockholm sees itself on the right road to create an ecometropolis, a closed- loop society with the best environmental performance of any capital in Europe.
By giving the citizens of Stockholm the role of key actors in the environmental process, the work on Agenda 21 and Environment 2000 has already initiated a number of special projects to stimulate and promote development. The following examples are significant for Stockholm´s citizen awareness approach and have already been implemented or are on their way:
This project addresses the large problem of vehicular traffic, especially food transportation and its environmental effects. A mapping survey was conducted of 13 food producers´ transportation methods, including distances from growers to the point of sale in Stockholm. Two alternatives have been investigated for each product to provide a comparison between a producer near-by and one located far from the city. The difference in energy consumption and resultant emissions have been tabulated and a savings potential was determined. In the end of 1996, this information will be passed to consumers in the stores with the co-operation of the retailers. Then each consumer can make up his mind if he prefers to buy goods produced near to home. Another component to this approach is to make certain that the trucks carrying goods to the stores are always fully loaded.
Another project aims to find out the relationship between a particular individual´s resource usage and the environmental impact caused by quantifiable activities, such as living conditions, leisure activities, consumption and travel. Each person enters his specific information such as the housing condition, the number of family members and their ages as well as purchasing habits and travel patterns. Then this input is analysed to produce a person´s environmental profile with regard to resources consumed by a household. In consequence, individuals can discover how they can change their habits to achieve a more sustainable lifestyle.
The city´s environmental protection engineers discuss the ecocycle with staff and children. The aim of this information work is to introduce new practices in choosing and using products in the day-to-day running of the centres. Children were also inspired by the Worm Theatre. Here they have developed ideas about what each of them can do to recycle paper, promote composting and prevent litter.
Kristineberg is an inner-city neighbourhood of Stockholm. Environmental efforts are managed by the local Ekostadsdelsföreningen (Neighbourhood Environmental Association) that was launched during the spring of 1995. This association points out that less visible forms of environmental damage take place every day in the local households where people still carelessly waste nature´s resources. Therefore the residents initiated a wide range of actions. Primary activities are designed to recycle waste, using waste separation and composting. Inventories of flora and fauna as well as the planting of trees are also taking place. Stores in the area will be encouraged to stock locally grown, organic vegetables. Run-off water will be treated locally and efforts will be made to use more wind and solar power. A users´ agreement has been reached between the City of Stockholm and Kristineberg residents concerning the management of parts of the park. As the activities also aim at the improvement of the social environment, efforts are under way to create a co-operative labour pool so that residents can help each other.
In this environmental centre in the Södermalm area of Stockholm´s inner city ten people are occupied with environmental projects in the surrounding areas. The group has contacted 43 restaurants about the possibility of working together to improve the environment. Two of these have agreed to take part and they are now working on recycling food waste and packaging. Contacts have also been made with local landlords. Old furniture being held in waste collection rooms is being picked up and refurbished in the Kul-Lagret workshop. Residents are regularly invited to environmental evenings. On one block, a survey has been made to determine if people would be interested in composting. Responses were sufficiently positive so that composting activities will probably be initiated.
In March of 1994, Miljöligan (Environmental League) started its environmental activities in co- operation with the local environmental group in the suburb of Skarpnäck. One of the local housing firms offered the use of an empty kindergarten and the Skarpnäck municipal administration is paying most of the costs. The main object is to launch environmental projects in the area. For example, a Recycling Centre has been opened where old books or toys can be exchanged for points towards future purchase.
As good examples of local practice, these high-priority projects are in implementation:
Together with Stockholm Water Company, Miljöligan has started a special Skarpnäck group. An area with seven blocks has been chosen for an intensive information campaign with the aim of lowering the supply of harmful substances to the rain sewers and sewage water system. A measuring station has been installed where it is possible to measure different parameters of the water quality. Two specially trained people are now spreading the information to the inhabitants. This takes place at meetings with existing organisations, schools and kindergartens. Stockholm Water Company has picked some parameters for the rain sewers and sewage water which corresponds to the efforts made in this area. If this project is successful, it can be used as a model in other parts of Stockholm.
During the autumn of 1994 Miljöligan started an experiment to receive some of the waste fractions that were not collected by the waste company for further transportation to suitable receivers. In addition, residents were informed and encouraged to follow this approach. Now SKAFAB (the waste company) has started a pilot project in Skarpnäck to collect e.g. the following waste fractions:
In addition Miljöligan started in the end of 1994 to supervise the paper collection containers placed in and around Skarpnäck. Every week SKAFAB was informed how full they were. In the course of this activity, it became clear that the container system for magazines and papers was far too small and their number has now been doubled by SKAFAB. Since the spring of 1995 Miljöligan started to transport food leftovers from three schools and one restaurant to a pig farm. This activity is continued and now the food leftovers are transported to the waste company´s new biogas plant.
Lake Flaten is regarded as Stockholm´s best lake for swimming. In the summer of 1995 Miljöligan and Stockholm Water Company prepared information screens and put them up around the lake. The purpose was to make people more aware of Flaten´s values. In co-operation with the Environment Protection Administration in Stockholm a dialogue was started with important key groups. In the summer of 1996 Miljöligan intensified the information in the areas the residents use for swimming and recreation.
A competition took place during the spring of 1995 between the two of three major grocery stores (Konsum and Hemköp). They fought for the title The most environmentally-friendly grocery store in Skarpnäck and the winner that year was Konsum. The first prize was a one year free advertising sign at the entry of Skarpnäck. Among the aspects the jury considered was waste separation, handling of waste, recycling, energy, transport, education of staff and special creative solutions. In 1996 the third store, CIA, joined the challenge. During the time of the project considerable improvements have been made in these stores.
In Miljöligan´s Eco-shop the customers can buy environmentally sound products which are not yet available in other shops in Skarpnäck. The purpose is to supply people with alternatives and to show them what options they have. In this way, Miljöligan aims to increase the demand for eco- products and in future to direct the customers to the ordinary stores.
The implementation of these projects involves a wide range of institutions and associations in Stockholm. The actors are neighbourhood initiatives like the local Ekostadsdelsföreningen (Neighbourhood Environmental Association) in Kristineberg, the city´s environmental protection engineers, the city´s waste management company SKAFAB as well as local stores and restaurants. The Kul-Lagret/Södermalm´s environmental centre is being run in co-operation with the social district and the employment office as it is a project for people in search of employment. Miljöligan plays a very active role in the projects mentioned above. It started its activities in March 1994 in co-operation with the local environmental group in Skarpnäck.
The citizen awareness approach can also be strengthened by the forthcoming administrative reorganisation in Stockholm. Beginning in 1997, the city will be divided into 24 administrative areas, each retaining considerable autonomy. In consequence, environmental protection efforts can take place even closer to the citizens. This new structure will enable an entirely new form of contact with the population.
The Agenda 21 office has an annual budget of 9.5 million Swedish kronas, that is equivalent to approximately 1.1 million ECU. As the office consists of only three people, there is a lot of money that can be spent on information and supporting different projects. From the 9.5 million 2 million are put aside to a fund where NGOs can apply for funding of their projects. This fund has been working for two years now and approximately 75 different projects have been financed. The total budget for the City of Stockholm´s Agenda 21 work is not known. All the departments and public enterprises pay for their own projects.
The Agenda 21 office has financed the following projects:
The Skarpnäck project is mainly financed via ALU money , i.e. money directed to unemployed people, and money from the Skarpnäck Civic Administration. The work targeting day-care centres and schools is also mainly ALU-financed. But a certain amount of money has been granted from the City Council to pay for the project leader and to rent the office.
Environment and Health Protection Administration 1996: European Sustainable City Award - Application form from the City of Stockholm, Agenda 21 Stockholm
Environment and Health Protection Administration 1996: Miljö 2000 - Stockholm´s Environmental Programme, Stockholm
|Telefon||:||0046 / 8 / 616 96 17|
|Telefax||:||0046 / 8 / 616 9860|
|Address||:||Project leader AGENDA 21|
|The City of Stockholm|
|Environment and Health|
|S - 100 64 Stockholm|
Stockholm, city and seaport, capital of Sweden and of Stockholm County is situated on the eastern coast of the country, where Lake Malaren enters the Baltic Sea. Located at the heart of an archipelago of more than 20,000 islands, Stockholm benefits from a natural environment of rare quality. Some 710,000 people live in the City of Stockholm, and more than 60,000 companies are based here. Nearly 120,000 people study daily at elementary schools, secondary schools and universities. Stockholm is the largest city and the chief commercial, manufacturing, transportation and cultural centre of the country. Major manufacturing fields include printed material, electric equipment, processed food, machinery, metal products, paper, chemicals, textiles and clothing. Government operations, tourism and shipbuilding also are important to the city´s economic base.
Project was added at 23.01.1997
Project was changed at 24.08.2001